Gateway to dairy production and products


The glossary provides definitions of terms and acronyms relevant to the dairy sector.

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Ear tag

a tag that generally is attached to the ear of a dairy animal for easy and accurate identification.

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Ear tag

a tag that generally is attached to the ear of a dairy cow for easy and accurate identification.

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Earthen storage basin

an earthen pond or basin for storing animal waste.  Differs from an anaerobic treatment lagoon in that wastes are not stored for an extended period and microbial breakdown or treatment does not occur.

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the projecting overhang at the lower edge of a roof.

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Energy-corrected milk

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 a parasite, such as a flea, that lives on the outer surface of another animal.

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Edible acid casein

The milk product obtained by separating, washing and drying the acid-precipitated coagulum of skimmed milk and/or of other products obtained from milk. (Codex Alimentarius)

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Caséine acide comestible

produit laitier obtenu par la séparation, le lavage et le séchage du coagulum précipité par acides du lait écrémé et/ou d’autres produits dérivés du lait. (Codex Alimentarius)

Caseína ácida alimentaria

producto lácteo obtenido mediante la separación, lavado y secado del coágulo, precipitado por ácidos, de la leche desnatada (descremada) y/o de otros productos obtenidos de la leche. (Codex Alimentarius)

Edible caseinate

The milk product obtained by action of edible casein or edible casein curd coagulum with neutralizing agents followed by drying. (Codex Alimentarius)

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Caséinate comestible

produit laitier obtenu par action du coagulum de la caséine comestible ou de la caséine comestible caillée avec des agents neutralisants, suivie d’un séchage. (Codex Alimentarius)

Caseinato alimentario

producto lácteo obtenido por acción del coágulo de la caseína alimentaria o de la cuajada de caseína alimentaria con agentes neutralizantes, seguida de un proceso de secado. (Codex Alimentarius)

Edible rennet casein

The milk product obtained by separating, washing and drying the coagulum of skimmed milk and/or of other products obtained from milk. The coagulum is obtained through the reaction of rennet or other coagulating enzymes. (Codex Alimentarius)

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Caséine présure comestible

produit laitier obtenu par la séparation, le lavage et le séchage du coagulum du lait écrémé et/ou d’autres produits dérivés du lait. Le coagulum est obtenu par réaction de la présure ou d’autres enzymes coagulantes. (Codex Alimentarius)

Caseína de cuajo alimentaria

producto lácteo obtenido mediante la separación, lavado y secado del coágulo de la leche desnatada (descremada) y/o de otros productos obtenidos de la leche. El coágulo se obtiene mediante la reacción del cuajo u otras enzimas coagulantes. (Codex Alimentarius)



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the liquid outflow or discharge of a waste treatment process.

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substance that dissociates in solution thereby becoming electrically charged. Many minerals are present in the body as electrolytes.

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a wasted condition of the body; great losses of body weight or condition.

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décharnement du corps ; grande perte de poids corporel ou grande baisse de l’état général.

Embryo recipient

any cow or heifer that serves as a surrogate mother and carries the embryo of another cow throughout the development of the embryo and birth of the calf.

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Embryo transfer

modern technology whereby multiple fertilized eggs (ova) are flushed from the donor's uterus, and are transferred to a recipient animal that serves as a surrogate mother.  The fertilized ova may be frozen and stored indefinitely before they are thawed and transferred to recipients.

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Transfert d'embryons

technologie moderne qui permet d’extraire plusieurs ovules fécondés (ovules) de l'utérus de la donneuse, et de les transférer à un animal receveur qui sert de mère de substitution. Les ovules fécondés peuvent être congelés et stockés indéfiniment avant qu'ils ne soient décongelés et transférés aux bénéficiaires.


a parasite, such as a tapeworm, that lives within another animal.

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a green chop (forage) preserved by fermentation in a silo, pit, or stack, usually in chopped form.  Also called silage.

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fourrage vert généralement haché, conservé par fermentation dans un silo, un puits, ou sous forme de meule.


forraje verde, generalmente picado, conservado por fermentación en un silo, pozo o apilado. También denominado ensilado.


of or within the intestine.

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inflammation of the intestine.

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disease caused by bacterial toxins produced in the intestine.

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a protein that accelerates a biochemical reaction at body temperature, without being used up in the process.

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the rapid spreading of a disease so that many animals or people have it concurrently. See epizootic.

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a single layer composed of closely arranged cells that form the covering of most internal surfaces and organs and the outer surface of an animal's body.

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designating a widely diffused disease of animals spreading rapidly and affecting many individuals of a kind concurrently in any region, thus corresponding to an epidemic in man.

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complete elimination of a disease from a region or country, especially one that is epidemic.

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a plant sterol which, when activated by ultraviolet rays, becomes vitamin D2, also called provitamin d2 and ergosterin.

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the act of belching or casting up gas from the stomach.

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Escherichia coli (E. Coli)

a bacterial species that normally inhabits the intestine. Under certain conditions, it may become pathogenic, causing diarrhoea.

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the part of a cow that extends upward just above and back of the udder where the hair turns upward in contrast to the normal downward direction of hair.  Also called milk mirror.

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Estimated Producing Ability (EPA)

an estimation of the amount of milk and/or components that an animal will yield above or below herd mates based on the animal's pedigree information and performance, if available. (also called estimated relative producing ability or ERPA).

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Estimated Transmitting Ability (ETA)

an estimation of an animal's genetic transmitting ability based on pedigree information and the animal's performance, if available. (also called estimated average transmitting ability or EATA.)

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Ether Extract (EE)

fatty substances or lipids of foods and feeds that are soluble in ether.

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Evaporated milk

the liquid food obtained by partial removal of water from milk.  The MF and TMS contents are not less than 7.5 and 25.5 percent, respectively.  It contains 25 IU vitamin D per ounce and is homogenized.  The food is sealed in a container and is so processed by heat, either before or after sealing, as to prevent spoilage.

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Evaporated milks

milk products which can be obtained by the partial removal of water from milk by heat, or by any other process which leads to a product of the same composition and characteristics. The fat and/or protein content of the milk may have been adjusted (...) by the addition and/or withdrawal of milk constituents in such a way as not to alter the whey protein to casein ratio of the milk being adjusted. (Codex Alimentarius)

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Laits concentrés

produits laitiers obtenus par élimination partielle de l’eau contenue dans le lait, par chauffage ou tout autre procédé qui aboutisse à un produit ayant les mêmes composition et caractéristiques. Leur teneur en matière grasse et/ou en protéines peut avoir été ajustée (...) par l’addition et/ou le retrait de constituants du lait d’une manière telle que cela ne modifie le rapport protéines de lactosérum/caséine du lait. (Codex Alimentarius)

Leches evaporadas

productos obtenidos mediante eliminación parcial del agua de la leche por el calor o por cualquier otro procedimiento que permita obtener un producto con la misma composición y características. El contenido de grasa y/o proteínas podrá ajustarse (...) mediante adición y/o extracción de los constituyentes de la leche, de manera que no se modifique la proporción entre la caseína y la proteína del suero en la leche sometida a tal procedimiento. (Codex Alimentarius)


conversion of a liquid into a gas (vapour).

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conversion d'un liquide en gaz (vapeur).

Evaporative cooling

 the loss of heat due to evaporation at the surface of the skin or in the upper respiratory tract.

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Exocrine (eccrine)

secreting outwardly, into, or through a duct.

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Extension dairy

scientist also referred to as extension dairy specialist. A land-grant university or college dairy scientist with responsibilities for educational outreach programs.  

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the process of exposure of tissues inside the streak canal of animals' teats.  It is usually caused by prolonged milking and excessive milking vacuum or inadequate pulsation.

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processus d'exposition des tissus internes du canal du trayon de l’animal. Elle est généralement causée par une traite prolongée et un vide de traite excessif ou une pulsation de traite non adaptée.


proceso de exposición de los tejidos dentro del canal galactóforo del pezón del animal. Generalmente es ocasionada por un ordeño prolongado y un nivel excesivo de vacío o un numero inadecuado de pulsaciones en el ordeño.