GIEWS - Global Information and Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture

Countries requiring external assistance for food

Countries in crisis requiring external assistance for food are expected to lack the resources to deal with reported critical problems of food insecurity. The list below covers crises related to lack of food availability, widespread lack of access to food, or severe but localized problems. GIEWS updates this list four times a year.

December 2022
  (total: 45 countries)
Nature of Food Insecurity
Main Reasons
Changes from last report
Conflict, population displacement, high food prices, floods
  • According to the latest Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) analysis, issued in November 2022, the number of people in IPC Phase 3 (Crisis) and above is estimated at 2.7 million between September 2022 and March 2023, which includes 2 million people in IPC Phase 3 (Crisis) and 642 000 in IPC Phase 4 (Emergency). This is mainly due to the impact of civil insecurity and high food prices, as well as floods that caused people displacements, damaged standing crops and prevented access to fields.
  • In the last quarter of 2022, about 484 000 people were internally displaced and 746 000 refugees were hosted in neighbouring countries, mostly Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Chad.
Drought conditions
  • About 4.4 million people are estimated to be severely acutely food insecure between October and December 2022 reflecting consecutive poor rainy seasons since late 2020 that affected crop and livestock production, mainly in northern and eastern pastoral, agropastoral and marginal agricultural areas.
Conflict, shortfall in cereal production
  • According to the latest Cadre Harmonisé (CH) analysis, about 2.04 million people are estimated to be in need of humanitarian food assistance between October and December 2022, reflecting worsening conflicts and higher year-on-year prices of food. The situation is projected to worsen in 2023, as 2.87 million people are projected to face acute food insecurity during the June to August 2023 lean season period.
  • As of October 2022, civil conflict has displaced about 375 000 people, mostly in Diffa, Tahoua and Tillabery regions. Furthermore, the country hosts about 295 000 refugees, mainly from Nigeria and Mali.
  • Heavy rainfall during the 2022 rainy season triggered severe floods, affecting about 325 000 people across the country and aggravating food insecurity conditions.
Drought conditions, civil insecurity
  • In August, famine was expected to occur in Baidoa and Burhakaba districts of Bay Region between October and December 2022, if humanitarian assistance was not urgently scaled up.
  • An estimated 6.7 million people were expected to face severe acute food insecurity over the same period, including about 300 000 people facing IPC Phase 5 (Catastrophe), as a result of consecutive poor rainy seasons since late 2020, which severely affected crop and livestock production, and due to heightened conflict since early 2021.
Weather extremes, high food prices
  • About 1.4 million people are estimated to be facing acute food insecurity (IPC Phase 3 [Crisis]) between October and December 2022. The main drivers are erratic February–May rains in some central and southeastern areas that affected pulses production, the lingering socioeconomic impact of the COVID‑19 pandemic and high food prices.
Civil insecurity, shortfall in cereal production
  • According to the latest CH analysis, about 810  000 people are facing acute food insecurity (CH Phase 3 [Crisis] and above), between October and December 2022 due to persisting insecurity in Lac and Tibesti regions and flood-related disruptions to livelihoods and food markets. The situation is projected to worsen in 2023, as 1.5 million people are projected to face acute food insecurity during the June to August 2023 lean season period.
  • About 380 000 people were displaced due to insecurity in Lake Chad Region as of October 2022. Furthermore, about 575 000 refugees mostly from the Sudan, the Central African Republic, Cameroon and Nigeria reside in the country, due to conflicts and require humanitarian assistance.
  • As of early November, unprecedented floods destroyed about 465 000 hectares of crops and affected over 1.1 million people across the country, increasing the risk of a deterioration of food insecurity.
Civil insecurity in eastern areas, high food prices
  • According to the October 2022 IPC analysis, 26.4 million people are estimated to face acute food insecurity (IPC Phase 3 [Crisis] or above) between July and December 2022. This is due to persisting conflict in eastern provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu and Ituri, which continues to cause displacements and drive up staple food prices.
  • As of 31 October 2022, 929 000 Congolese refugees were hosted in several neighbouring countries, almost half of which are in Uganda.
Unfavourable weather, high food prices
  • About 192 000 people are estimated to be experiencing acute food insecurity (IPC Phase 3 [Crisis] and above) between July and December 2022, mainly due to the impact of insufficient rains in 2021 and 2022, which affected rangelands and pastoral livelihoods, and high food prices.
Macroeconomic challenges have increased the population's vulnerability to food insecurity
Conflict in Tigray Region, drought conditions in southeastern areas, high food prices
  • According to the 2022 Humanitarian Response Plan, 20.4 million people are officially estimated to be facing acute food insecurity.
  • In conflict-affected northern Tigray, Amhara and Afar regions, out of the total national figure, 13 million people are facing severe acute food insecurity due to the impact of the conflict on livelihoods.
  • Drought conditions that began in late 2020 are affecting millions of people in southern South West, SNNP and Somali regions, and in southern Borena zone of Oromia Region; in Somali Region alone, the worst affected area, 4.1 million people are estimated to be severely food insecure.
Localized shortfalls in cereal production, high food prices
  • An estimated 3.82 million people are expected to experience acute food insecurity (IPC Phase 3 [Crisis]) between October 2022 and March 2023. This number is more than double the estimate for the January to March 2022 period.
  • The worsening situation is driven by high food prices and the effects of weather induced localized shortfalls in cereal production in 2022, particularly in southern districts.
Conflict in northern areas, localized shortfalls in cereal production, high food prices
  • According to the latest CH analysis, about 17 million people are in need of humanitarian food assistance between October and December 2022, including about 780 000 in CH Phase 4 (Emergency) and nearly 3 000 in CH Phase 5 (Catastrophe), owing to the deterioration of security conditions and conflicts in northern states, localized shortfalls in staple food production, high food prices and reduced incomes. The situation is projected to worsen in 2023, as 25.3 million people are projected to face acute food insecurity during the June to August 2023 lean season period. This includes about 1.87 million people in CH Phase 4 (Emergency) and nearly 4 000 in CH Phase 5 (Catastrophe).
  • As of March 2022 (last data available), about 3.16 million people were estimated to be internally displaced most of them in northern states.
  • As of November 2022, the flood affected about 3.3 million people across the country, compounding conditions in areas already impacted by high levels of food insecurity, malnutrition and violence, mostly in northeastern states.
Economic downturn, floods, civil insecurity
  • Despite sustained humanitarian assistance, food insecurity still affects large segments of the population, owing to rampant inflation and insufficient food supplies, due to a stagnant agricultural production, impact of consecutive years with widespread floods and the escalation of organized violence at subnational level since 2020. About 6.3 million people, more than half of the total population, are expected to be face acute food insecurity between December 2022 and March 2023.
  • Particular concern exists for households in Jonglei State and Pibor Administrative Area, where about two-thirds of the population are expected to face severe acute food insecurity, including 33 000 people in IPC Phase 5 (Catastrophe).
High food prices
  • Based on a government assessment, an estimated 3.8 million people are expected to be in need of humanitarian assistance between January and March 2023. This number is higher than the level estimated in the first quarter of 2022.
  • The downturn in food insecurity conditions is largely on account of poor food access, due to prevailing high food prices and reduced incomes owing to the effects of an economic downturn. A decline in cereal production in 2022 has also aggravated conditions.
Civil insecurity in the north, high concentration of displaced people, high food prices
  • According to the latest CH analysis, about 2.62 million people are estimated to be acutely food insecure and in need of humanitarian assistance between October and December 2022, of which about 342 000 are in CH Phase 4 (Emergency) and about 1 800 in CH Phase 5 (Catastrophe). The situation is projected to worsen in 2023, as 3.5 million people are projected to face acute food insecurity during the June to August 2023 lean season period. This includes about 564 450 people in CH Phase 4 (Emergency) and nearly 20 000 in CH Phase 5 (Catastrophe).
  • In Centre-Nord and Sahel regions, insecurity continued to cause population displacements and, as of October 2022 (latest data available), about 1.76 million people had been displaced and required assistance. In addition, nearly 35 000 refugees, mostly from Mali, are residing in Sahel Region.
Civil insecurity, high food prices
  • According to the November 2022 CH analysis, about 3.6 million people are estimated to be acutely food insecure, CH Phase 3 (Crisis) and above, between October and December 2022, as a result of conflict, sociopolitical unrest and high food prices.
  • As of 31 October 2022, the number of internally displaced people (IDPs) in the Northwest and Southwest regions was estimated at about 598 000, while IDPs in the Far North Region amounted to almost 378 000.
Refugee influx
  • As of 31 August 2022, an estimated 29 200 refugees from the Central African Republic and 22 200 from the Democratic Republic of the Congo were residing in the country, mostly in Likouala and Plateaux departments. Host communities face pre-existing food shortages and limited livelihood opportunities, and refugees’ food security relies heavily on ongoing humanitarian assistance.
High food prices, economic downturn
  • The latest IPC analysis indicates that nearly 259 000 people are expected face acute food insecurity at least until March 2023, an improvement compared to the previous year.
  • Food insecurity in 2022/23 is driven by the high food prices and an expected slowdown in economic growth, curbing households’ income earning opportunities.
Reduced incomes
  • About 650 000 people are estimated to be in need of food assistance between October and December 2022, primarily due to food access constraints on account of the economic effects of the COVID‑19 pandemic and high food prices. The situation is projected to worsen in 2023, as about 923 000 people are projected to face acute food insecurity during the June to August 2023 lean season period. This includes about 2 500 people in CH Phase 4 (Emergency).
  • As of November 2022, about 48 000 people have been affected by floods.
  • In addition, about 2 200 refugees, mostly from Sierra Leone, are residing in the country.
High food prices, economic downturn
  • According to the latest IPC analysis, an estimated at 320 000 people are projected to face IPC Phase 3 (Crisis) levels of acute food insecurity between October 2022 and March 2023, a small improvement on the situation in early 2022.
  • Food insecurity conditions are primarily underpinned by the high food prices and a slow economic recovery that is impinging on households’ economic capacity to access food.
High food prices, economic downturn
  • According to the latest CH analysis, about 373 000 people are estimated to be in CH Phase 3 (Crisis) and above between October and December 2022, of which nearly 7 500 in CH Phase 4 (Emergency), due to high food prices and a slow economic recovery from the pandemic-induced downturn. The situation is projected to worsen in 2023, as about 530 000 people are projected to face acute food insecurity during the June to August 2023 lean season period. This includes about 21 350 people in CH Phase 4 (Emergency).
  • As of October 2022, the country was hosting approximately 1 660 refugees.
  • As of November 2022, nearly 90 000 people have been affected by floods.
Civil insecurity, economic and political instability, high food prices
  • The 2022 Humanitarian Needs Overview states that 0.8 million people (10 percent of the population) are in need humanitarian assistance, of which 0.5 million require food assistance, including IDPs or migrants that are residing in, or transiting through, the country.
Extreme weather events, slow economic recovery
  • Between January and March 2023, an estimated 2.2 million people are projected to face IPC Phase 3 (Crisis) and above levels of acute food insecurity in southern and southeastern areas, due to successive years of droughts and the impact of cyclones in 2022. This number is above the 1.64 million people estimated in early 2022.
Civil insecurity, high food prices
  • According to the latest CH analysis, about 632 000 people were estimated to be in CH Phase 3 (Crisis) and above between June and August 2022, including nearly 15 000 in CH Phase 4  (Emergency), as a result of worsening conflicts, weather shocks and high food prices. The situation is projected to worsen in 2023, as 1.25 million people are projected to face acute food insecurity during the June to August 2023 lean season period. This includes over 100 000 people in CH Phase 4 (Emergency) and about 1 600 in CH Phase 5  (Catastrophe).
  • As of August 2022, about 425 000 people were internally displaced, mostly in central and northern parts of the country. In addition, the country hosts approximately 56 000 refugees, mostly from the Niger, Mauritania and Burkina Faso.
  • As of November 2022, nearly 80 000 people have been affected by floods.
Shortfall in agricultural production, economic downturn
  • According to the latest CH analysis, about 440 000 people are assessed to be in need of humanitarian assistance between October and December  2022, including about 56 000 in CH Phase 4 (Emergency), as a result of high food prices and reduced incomes. The situation is projected to worsen in 2023, as nearly 695 000 people are projected to face acute food insecurity during the June to August 2023 lean season period. This includes about 106 000 people in CH Phase 4 (Emergency).
  • As of September 2022, about 54 000 people have been affected by floods.
  • As of October 2022, nearly 100 000 refugees, mostly from Mali, also require humanitarian assistance.
Insecurity in northern areas, extreme weather impacts
  • Cyclones and tropical storms in 2022 affected a large number of people, particularly in central provinces, while insecurity in the northern province of Cabo Delgado continues to impact livelihoods and underpins the severest levels of acute food insecurity.
  • The latest IPC analysis from December 2021 projected that 1.4 million people were facing acute food insecurity (IPC Phase 3  [Crisis] and above) between April and September 2022. 
Localized shortfalls in cereal production, economic downturn, high food prices
  • High food prices and localized weather induced shortfalls in cereal production in 2022 are expected to result in a comparable number of people facing acute food insecurity (IPC Phase 3  [Crisis] and above) in the January to March 2023 period compared to 2022, when an estimated 750 000 people were in need of assistance.
High food prices, floods, reduced incomes
  • According to the latest CH analysis, nearly 876 000 people are estimated to be in need of humanitarian assistance between October and December 2022, including nearly 30 000 in CH Phase 4 (Emergency), mostly on abnormally high food prices, the severe effect of floods on livelihoods and food markets, and reduced incomes. The situation is projected to worsen in 2023, as about 1.43 million people are projected to face acute food insecurity during the June to August 2023 lean season period. This includes about 87 000 people in CH Phase 4  (Emergency).
  • As of November 2022, about 26 000 people had been affected by floods.
  • As of October, an estimated 12 000 refugees, mostly from Mauritania, require humanitarian assistance.
High food prices, reduced incomes
  • Nearly 790 000 people are estimated to face acute food insecure between October and December 2022 on account of high food prices and low purchasing power, resulting in acute constraints on households’ economic access to food. The situation is projected to worsen in 2023, as about 1.11 million people are projected to face acute food insecurity during the June to August 2023 lean season period. This includes nearly 20 000 people in CH Phase 4 (Emergency).
  • As of November 2022, about 17 000 people have been affected by floods.
Conflict, civil insecurity, high food prices, tight cereal supplies
  • The number of acutely food insecure (IPC Phase 3 [Crisis] and above) people are estimated at 7.7 million between October 2022 and February 2023, mainly due to tight cereal supplies following a below average 2021 harvest, high food prices and intercommunal conflict.
Weather extremes, insecurity, high food prices
  • In Karamoja Region, the latest IPC analysis indicates that about 315 000 people, 25 percent of the population, are estimated to be facing acute food insecurity (IPC Phase 3 [Crisis] and above) between August 2022 and February 2023. These conditions reflect the adverse impact of consecutive poor rainy seasons on crop and livestock production, frequent episodes of cattle rustling leading to the loss of productive assets and high food prices.
  • About 847 000 refugees from South Sudan and about 467 000 from the Democratic Republic of the Congo are hosted in camps and rely on humanitarian assistance.
Localized shortfalls in staple food production, high food prices
  • According to the latest IPC analysis, about 592 000 people were estimated to be in need of humanitarian assistance between May and September 2022, mainly located in northeastern Mara, Arusha, Kilimanjaro and Tanga regions, reflecting crop losses during the “Vuli” 2021 and the “Masika” 2022 seasons. High food prices are also constraining households’ economic access to food.
Reduced cereal production, high food prices
  • An estimated 1.95 million people are expected to experience acute food insecurity (IPC Phase 3 [Crisis] and above) between October 2022 and March 2023, an increase compared to the 1.6 million people estimated in 2021/22.
  • The high level of acute food insecurity is associated with the effects of a below average cereal harvest and high food prices that have adversely impacted households’ food availability and access.
Civil conflict, economic crisis
  • The latest available nationwide food security assessment estimated that about 12 million people, 60 percent of the total population, were acutely food insecure in 2021, a slight decline from the 12.4 million in 2020, but 5 million more than at the end of 2019, mostly due to constrained livelihood opportunities and a rapidly worsening economy.
  • Although some international food assistance is being provided, Syrian refugees are pressuring host communities' resources in neighbouring countries.
Low food consumption levels, poor dietary diversity, economic downturn, reduction in 2022 agricultural output
  • A large portion of the population suffers from low levels of food consumption and poor dietary diversity.
  • The food security situation is expected to remain fragile, given persisting economic constraints aggravated by a below‑average 2022 agricultural output.
Economic crisis
  • In September 2021, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia estimated that, taking into account multiple factors other than income, such as access to health, education and public utilities, 82 percent of the population lives in multidimensional poverty in 2021, up from 42 percent in 2019.
  • Over 1.7 million people were estimated to face acute food insecurity at the end of 2021, based on the World Food Programme's (WFP) Consolidated Approach for Reporting Indicators of Food Security rCARI) methodology.
Serious macroeconomic challenges, significant reduction in 2022 agricultural output, high food prices
  • Severe macroeconomic challenges have had a negative impact on the country’s capacity to import cereals, while 2022 cereal production declined sharply, due to a reduced application of agrochemicals.
  • Elevated food prices are also constraining economic access to food for a large number of households.
  • As a result, food and nutrition security has deteriorated since the beginning of 2022, with a significant proportion of vulnerable households adopting food and livelihood-related coping strategies.
Conflict, poverty, floods, high food and fuel prices
  • Nearly 17 million people or over 53 percent of the population are classified in IPC Phase 3 (Crisis) or worse between October and December 2022. Of primary concern, are the 6.1 million people classified in IPC Phase 4 (Emergency) and the 4.3 million people who are internally displaced as a result of the conflict.
Civil conflict, population displacement, economic slowdown
  • The latest IPC analysis estimated the number of people in IPC Phase 3 (Crisis) and IPC Phase 4 (Emergency) at 18.9 million between June and November 2022.
Economic constraints, refugee influx, floods, high prices of important food items
  • Food insecurity as well as poverty levels have increased, due to income losses caused by the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • About 1 million Rohingya refugees from Myanmar reside in the country, mainly in Cox’s Bazar District and on the island of Bhasan Char.
  • Floods from May to July affected a large number of people, causing deaths, damages and destruction to agricultural infrastructures as well as losses of livestock and food stocks.
  • Domestic prices of wheat flour and palm oil, important food items, were at high levels in October 2022.
Conflict, political instability, economic constraints, high prices of main food staple, reduction in 2022 agricultural output
  • The political crisis, following the military takeover on 1 February 2021, caused increased tensions and unrest throughout the country that resulted in population displacement. According to the latest figures (November 2022) from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the number of IDPs is estimated at about 1.44 million. Most of the IDPs reside in Rakhine, Chin, Kachin, Kayin and Shan states. The current uncertain political situation may further compromise the fragile conditions of vulnerable households and the Rohingya IDPs residing in the country.
  • Domestic prices of “Emata” rice, the most consumed variety in the country, were at record levels in October 2022, constraining access to a key staple food.
  • Income losses due to the impact of the COVID‑19 pandemic have also affected the food security situation of vulnerable households.
Severe floods, reduced agricultural production, economic constraints, high prices of the main food staple
  • Severe monsoon floods and landslides caused widespread destruction of crops, livestock assets, agricultural infrastructure, food reserves and disrupted the livelihoods of 33 million people.
  • According to the latest IPC analysis, carried out in 28 districts in Balochistan, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces, about 6 million people were projected to be facing high levels of acute food insecurity (IPC Phase 3 [Crisis] and above), between July and November 2022.
  • Prices of wheat flour, the country’s main staple, were at elevated levels in most markets in October 2022, constraining access to a key staple food.
Economic crisis
  • The total number of refugees and migrants from the country is estimated at 7.1 million people, with the largest populations located in Colombia (2.48 million), Peru (1.49 million), Ecuador (502 200), Chile (448 100) and Brazil (365 400). The remaining 0.7 million people are spread across other countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, with about 1 million people located outside the region. Humanitarian needs for refugees and migrants are significant. According to the 2022 Refugee and Migrant Needs Analysis, issued in October 2022, the number of Venezuelan refugees and migrants in need of food assistance is estimated at 3.16 million in 2022.
Reduced agricultural production, sociopolitical turmoil, natural disasters
  • About 4.56 million people were estimated to be facing severe acute food insecurity and in need of urgent food assistance between March and June 2022. The high levels of food insecurity are the result of consecutive reduced cereal harvests between 2018 and 2021, and elevated food prices, exacerbated by sociopolitical turmoil and worsening insecurity. The lack of income‑earning opportunities amid worsening insecurity and difficult macroeconomic conditions is likely to heighten food insecurity.
Conflict
  • According to the August update of the Ukraine Flash Appeal 2022, 17.7 million people are estimated to be in urgent need of humanitarian assistance and protection due to the war, including about 6.5 million people who are internally displaced.