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抗菌素耐药性

抗菌素耐药性是对全球人类和动物健康的主要威胁,且越来越令人担忧。它还影响食品安全、粮食安全,以及数百万农户的经济福利。

食品在抗菌素耐药性的发展和传播中起着重要的作用。存在于农业生产系统和食物链中的抗菌素耐药性微生物是每个人潜在的暴露途径。农业生产中良好的卫生操作,是实现食品安全的基础,也是解决抗菌素耐药性的关键。

食品法典在抗菌素耐药性中的作用

食品中的微生物(细菌、寄生虫、病毒和真菌)是潜在的食品安全危害。在食品动物中使用抗菌素(可杀死微生物或阻止其生长的药剂)与食物链中耐药性微生物的出现之间的关系是一个令人关切的问题,已成为众多国家和国际磋商的主题。

在食品动物(包括水产养殖)、园艺或人类中使用抗菌药,对人类抗菌素耐药性微生物的影响,不同的微生物和不同的地区其程度不同。

当人类摄入食品中的抗菌素耐药性微生物时,某些种类的微生物可能会致病。这些和其他种类的微生物还可能成为其他微生物(包括人类病原体)的可转移抗性决定因素的来源。

在认识到需要更广泛和多学科的应对措施来应对抗菌素耐药性的情况下,2006年,食典委成立了第一个抗菌素耐药性工作组,以制定以下方面的科学指导:如何评估和管理食品和饲料(包括水产养殖)中存在以及通过食品和饲料传播的耐药微生物对人类健康造成的风险。为了应对全球越来越关注抗菌素耐药性对公共卫生的严重威胁,最近成立了第二个工作组,将会制定科学指导,以便协调一致地管理全食物链的抗菌素耐药性。

关于兽药及其残留物、食品卫生、动物饲料的其他食品法典文本,通过在食物链中防止抗菌素耐药性的发展和尽量减少抗菌素耐药性的传播,也有助于解决抗菌素耐药性。

相关食典文本

索引 标题 委員 最新修订
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RU
CXC 61-2005尽量减少和控制抗菌素耐药性的操作规范TFAMR2021
CXG 77-2011食源性抗菌素耐药性风险分析指南 TFAMR2021
CXG 94-2021Guidelines on integrated monitoring and surveillance of foodborne antimicrobial resistance TFAMR2021

新闻

Work on AMR a collaborative effort

In 2016 the Codex Alimentarius Commission established a Task Force on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) which will hold its first meeting in Jeju, 27 November – 1 December 2017. Professor Yong Ho Park will chair the task force on behalf of the Republic of Korea. Professor Park holds a doctorate in veterinary medicine and a masters in science from Seoul National University, Korea and a PhD in veterinary microbiology from Washington State University. He has worked in the field of veterinary science [...]
16 November 2017

Science-based expertise for the global dairy sector

The International Dairy Federation (IDF) is the global voice of dairy towards stakeholders and intergovernmental organizations and an NGO observer in Codex. Nico van Belzen is Director General and spoke to Codex about AMR. Codex: Antimicrobial Resistance is not constrained by geographic borders therefore limiting the development of AMR requires the implementation of global strategies. Why is it important today to raise the awareness of all stakeholders involved?  van Belzen: The spread of AMR threatens our ability to treat common infectious diseases, resulting in [...]
15 November 2017

Steve Wearne talks AMR for Codex

Steve Wearne is Director of Policy and Science Group at the UK Food Standards Agency and In July 2017 he was elected as Vice Chair of the Codex Alimentarius Commission. He also chaired the 2016 Codex physical Working Group on antimicrobial resistance in London.   For Antimicrobial Awareness Week we spoke to Steve about the importance of antimicrobial resistance as an issue, about the agricultural use of antimicrobials, and about national and international action on the issue, of which the work of [...]
13 November 2017

Report of Codex AMR meeting published

The Codex Secretariat has published the report of the working group on AMR hosted by the UK and co-chaired by the USA and Australia that met in London from 29 November to 2 December 2016. The report is available online as a working document of the 40th Codex Alimentarius Commission which will take place in Geneva in July. Broad consensus The London meeting completed the tasks set by the 2016 Commission and carried out the initial ground work for the Codex Task Force [...]
17 February 2017

London AMR meeting sets direction for Codex taskforce

The working group hosted by UK and co-chaired by the USA and Australia met in London from 29 November to 2 December 2016 to complete the tasks set by the 39th Codex Alimentarius Commission. Taskforce to tackle emerging global threat This work involved preparing the work for the Codex Task Force on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) which will begin its discussions in 2017. Hosted by the Republic of Korea, this body will review and revise Codex texts to address uses of antimicrobials in agriculture [...]
03 December 2016

Codex begins new work on antimicrobial resistance

In London this week, Codex will take the lead on food safety and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) as technical experts from Codex member countries set the course to combat this global threat. The meeting, hosted by the United Kingdom in collaboration with the United States and Australia will take place from 29 November - 2 December at The Chartered Institute of Environmental Health. The technical meeting will revise project documents and identify the scientific advice needed from FAO and WHO in collaboration with OIE to [...]
29 November 2016
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关键事实

  • 每年大约有500 000人的死亡与抗菌素耐药性相关
  • 在动物中使用了27类不同的抗菌素。
  • 2011年全球动物卫生市场总值相当于220亿美元(经合组织)
  • 只有42个国家拥有家畜抗菌素使用情况的数据收集系统(世界动卫组织)
  • 尚没有关于全球家畜使用抗菌药物情况的标准化数据

Source FAO

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